|First flight (The first flight or maiden flight of an aircraft is the first opportunity for it to take to the air on its own. It is the aeronautical equivalent of the maiden voyage …)||late 1926|
Miles Master (The Miles Master is a Royal Air Force training aircraft used during World War II produced in more than 3,000 copies.)
|Type||combustion engine (The internal combustion engine is an internal combustion engine mainly used for the propulsion of transport vehicles (airplane …) V12|
|Length (The length of an object is the distance between its two furthest ends. When the object is thread-like or shaped like …)||1,895 mm|
|Mass (The term mass is used to designate two quantities attached to a body: one quantifies the inertia of the body (the inert mass) and the other the contribution of the body to the force of …)||434 kg|
The Kestrel or type F is a engine (An engine is a device transforming non-mechanical energy (wind, chemical, electrical, thermal for example) into mechanical energy or work. (Ref. Necessary)) ofplane (An airplane, according to the official definition of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is an aircraft heavier than air, driven by an organ …) V-12 of a power (The word power is used in several fields with a special meaning 🙂 700 hp (520 kW) built by Rolls-Royce. This is their first block engine (An engine (from the Latin mōtor: "the one who stirs") is a device that moves matter by providing power. It does this …) molded, and it will prefigure the style of most of their future (Futurs is a science fiction collection from Éditions de l'Aurore.) piston engine models. Used during the interwar years, it remains somewhat unknown, but it has excellent service records over a number of years. number (The notion of number in linguistics is discussed in the article "Grammatical number".) of British hunters of the time.
Ironically, prototypes of German Kestrel-powered military aircraft were subsequently used during the Battle ofEngland (England is one of the four constituent nations of the United Kingdom. It is by far the most populous, with …). Only two Kestrel engines remain in working order. market (Walking (the pleonasm walking is also often used) is a natural mode of locomotion. It consists of a movement in alternating support on …) in 2010.
Conception and development
The Kestrel arrived (Arriva is a British private group specializing in public passenger transport. It operates bus and train services, mainly in …) following the excellent Curtiss D-12, the first real success of a molded block engine. Previous designs used cylinders in steel (Steel is a metal alloy used in the fields of metal construction (see also article on …) individually machined and then screwed to a housing, while the cast block uses a single block ofaluminum (Aluminum is a chemical element, with the symbol Al and the atomic number 13. It is an important element on Earth with 1.5% of the total mass.) which is machined to form the cylinders. The result is at the same time easier to construct, lighter and much more resistant, requiring only an investment in new machining equipment.
The D-12 was one of the most powerful engines of its time, and it has consistently broken the records set by contemporary high horsepower engines. No British company could compete, and when Fairey imported 50 (renaming them Fairey-Felix), the Ministry ofAir (Air is the mixture of gases that make up Earth's atmosphere. It is odorless and colorless. As air pressure decreases with altitude, it is …) Had enough and ordered Napier & Son and Rolls-Royce to start working on their own cast engine blocks.
Arthur rowledge (in), one of Napier's chief engineers and the designer (A designer is a person who imagines and achieves something. This word comes from the verb to conceive.) of the motor Napier Lion (The lion (Panthera leo) is a carnivorous mammal of the felidae family of the genus Panthera (felines). It is nicknamed …) (in), at odds with his management, resigned to join Rolls. This change alone diminished the design effort at Napier, as Rolls found a new lease of life. Applying all the advances known from the early days of the D-12, Rowledge designed the new engine to use the overeating (The purpose of supercharging is to increase the power of a naturally aspirated gasoline or diesel engine, without increasing its rotational speed, …) at all altitudes, allowing it to outperform naturally aspirated engines.
A major advance in the Kestrel is the use of a pressurized cooling system. Thewater (Water is a ubiquitous chemical compound on Earth, essential for all known living organisms.) boils at 100 ° C at atmospheric pressure (Atmospheric pressure is the pressure of air at any point in an atmosphere.) normal, but this temperature (Temperature is a physical quantity measured with a thermometer and studied in thermometry. In life …) decreases withaltitude (Altitude is the vertical elevation of a place or object from a base level. It is one of the geographic and biogeographic components that explains the distribution of life on earth.). The amount (Quantity is a generic term in metrology (count, amount); a scalar, vector, number of objects or some other way of naming the value of a …) of heat (In everyday language, the words heat and temperature often have an equivalent meaning: What heat!) extracted from the engine is a function of the cooling liquid (The coolant is a liquid used in a closed circuit in order to evacuate the calories created in the form of heat. Most often, it is water with …) and his volume (Volume, in physical science or mathematics, is a quantity that measures the extent of an object or part of space.). However, as the liquid (The liquid phase is a state of matter. In this form, matter is easily deformable but difficult to compress.) cooling must be kept below its point (Graphics) ofboiling (Boiling is the formation of bubbles during a violent change of a body from a liquid state to a vapor state. This phenomenon is vaporization.), an increasing amount of liquid must therefore be used, with a larger radiator to cool it. The solution was therefore to pressurize the entire cooling system, having the effect not only of preventing the cooling performance from decreasing with altitude, but also of raising the boiling point on the ground. The Kestrel was thus built to maintain a pressure (Pressure is a fundamental physical notion. It can be seen as a force related to the surface on which it is applied.) sufficient to maintain the boiling point at 150 ° C.
Kestrel faired installation on the Hawker Hind
The first version of the engine was produced in 1927, with a power output of 450 hp (340 kW), and was quickly upgraded to its IB version, rising to 525 hp (390 kW). This version was widely used on the Hawker Hart series, pillar (A pillar is an architectural organ on which the loads of the superstructure are concentrated in a specific way (for example the loads of a frame or those of the masonry of the levels …) British air force in the early 1930s. However, it did not take long for improvements to significantly increase its power. The V model offered 695 hp (520 kW) at 3000 rpm without significant change in design, while the XVI used in the Master Miles delivered 670 hp (500 kW). In 1935 Messerschmitt also tested his first prototype of the Bf 109 V1 with a Kestrel engine, as the planned German engine was not yet ready. The Reich Air Ministry (RLM) acquired four Kestrel VI engines in exchange for a test bench version of the Heinkel (Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was a German aircraft manufacturing company founded by Ernst Heinkel. They built many bombers for the …) He 70 Blitz.
The biggest availability (The availability of an equipment or system is a performance measure obtained by dividing the time during which said equipment or system is …) of fuel (A fuel is a fuel that powers a heat engine. The engine transforms the chemical energy of the fuel into mechanical energy.) for aircraft with indexoctane (Octane is a saturated hydrocarbon of the alkane family with the molecular formula C8H18. It has 18 isomers.) higher in the late 1930s allowed the engine to be cranked up to higher horsepower without having to experience knocking, and the Kestrel eventually hit 720 hp (537 kW) in its 1940 XXX version.
The evolutions of the Kestrel were the Goshawk and the Peregrine (and therefore the Vulture). In practice, the developments of the Peregrine and the Vulture were disrupted and they were both abandoned, with relatively few units built.
The Kestrel was produced in 40 distinct versions which can be divided into three main groups: normally aspirated, medium supercharged and fully supercharged. A variant, the Kestrel VIII, was configured as an "engine to propeller (Helix is derived from a Greek word helix meaning “spiral.” An object in the shape of a helix is said to be helical.) propellant "for theseaplane (A seaplane designates an airplane with the ability to land (land) or take off on water. This term is composed of the Greek …) Singapore shorts (in). Apart from overfeeding, the various evolutions were based on the modification of the compression ratio (Compression ratio is a measure of the performance of a computer data compression algorithm. It is usually expressed as a percentage, and …) and thetree (A tree is a terrestrial plant capable of growing by itself in height, generally beyond seven meters. Trees …) reduction of the propeller.