For a long time, questions of digital sovereignty have revolved around GAFAM (Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple and Microsoft), and the issue of personal data. But the eruption of 5G has brought to light another company, from another country: Huawei.
Founded in 1987 by a former member of the People's Army, Huawei is often suspected of being under the influence of the Chinese state. The nature of the technologies it manipulates, which are an issue of economic sovereignty and security, reinforces the concerns of some countries. With good reason according to Alain Wang, for whom “Huawei has been supported by the Chinese government from the start”. He is joined in his analysis by Senator Christian Cambon: “A report submitted to the Senate has shown that cells of the Chinese Communist Party are in a number of representations of Huawei. We know that overall, a Chinese company of this size has a very strong dependence on its government, which raises questions ”.
On the economic front, Huawei has benefited from massive support from the Chinese state, "in particular on zero-interest loans," said Julien Nocetti, expert in digital sovereignty.
Europe under pressure
The real question would therefore be that of sovereignty. And on this subject, Europeans have lagged behind, even if Huawei's two main competitors in 5G are Nokia and Ericsson, respectively Finnish and Swedish. A delay which, according to Julien Nocetti, can be explained by a lack of will and investment on the part of the countries of the Union, whose support for these companies is far too low compared to what China allows Huawei. Investments which could however allow us "to exist rather than to align" according to the formula of Jean-Marie Le Guen.